French forces led by Napoleon conquered Spain but the Spanish regained control in 1814.
1808 · Peninsular war
War against Napolean was met with great resistance by Spanish nationalists, with help from British troops, Spain force French out of the peninsula.
1810 · Liberales political party established
"A new political party in Spain calls themselves the ""Liberales"", marking the first political use of the term Liberal."
Spanish (Hernández) and Jewish (Sephardic): patronymic from the personal name Hernando ( see Fernando ). This surname also became established in southern Italy, mainly in Naples and Palermo, since the period of Spanish dominance there, and as a result of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and Portugal at the end of the 15th century, many of whom moved to Italy.