The Sino-French War, Tonkin War, or Tonquin war, was a conflict between China and France regarding the control of Tonkin, a region in northern Vietnam. The Qing Dynasty performed well on land and won limited strategic victories; however, the Qing forces in Taiwan and other surrounding islands were defeated by the French. Ultimately, the war ended with the Treaty of Tientsin, which arguably satisfied most of the goals of the French.
1894 · First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was a conflict regarding Korean influence between Japan and China. The fighting began on July 25, 1894, and ended on April 17, 1895. This period was notable for Japan beginning to show regional dominance over China, primarily due to the fact that the Qing Dynasty's military had not been sufficiently modernized. In February of 1895, after suffering repeat losses for over six months, the Qing Dynasty sued for peace, initiating the close of the war.
Chinese Revolution. Yuan Shih-k'ai is recalled from retirement to take command of army to put down the revolution. He negotiates with the revolutionaries, with the hope of being instituted as the head of a new government, but is disappointed when Sun Yat-sen is appointed president of the new republic.
1 Chinese 李: from a character meaning ‘minister’. This was part of the title of Gao Yao , a great-grandson of the legendary emperor Zhuan Xu , who became famous as a minister under the model emperors Yao and Shun in the 23rd century bc ; he was the first to introduce laws for the repression of crime. His descendants adopted this part of his title as their surname. The use of this name continued for over a millennium to the twelfth century bc , down to the rule of the last king of the Shang dynasty, the despotic Zhou Xin. Li Zhi, the head of the Li clan at that time, displeased Zhou Xin and was executed, leaving the rest of the clan facing imminent disaster. They fled, and nearly starved to death, surviving only by eating a fruit called mu zi. When the characters for mu and zi are combined, they form the character for plum, pronounced Li. In token of this salvation, the clan changed their name to the current character for li ‘plum’. Li is now the most common surname in China. Among the many famous bearers are Lee Kwan Yew, prime minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1990 ; Lee Teng-hui , president of Taiwan from 1988 ; Li Peng , prime minister of China from 1988 ; and Bruce Lee ( 1941–73 ), movie actor.2 Chinese 黎: from the name of a state of Li (in presentday Shanxi province), which existed during the Shang dynasty ( 1766–1122 bc ). Descendants of the state's rulers adopted the name of the state as their surname.3 Chinese 利: this character for Li is an altered form of 1 above.