John Philip Holland was an inventor famous for designing the world's first submarines. After previous designs were rejected, Holland eventually received funding from the Fenians for a short time. In 1881, the Fenian Ram was launched into the Passaic River in northern New Jersey, marking the first successful submarine launch in the world.
1881 · The Assassination of James Garfield
Garfield was shot twice by Charles J. Guitea at Railroad Station in Washington, D.C. on July 2, 1881. After eleven weeks of intensive and other care Garfield died in Elberon, New Jersey, the second of four presidents to be assassinated, following Abraham Lincoln.
1882 · The Chinese Exclusion Act
A federal law prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. The Act was the first law to prevent all members of a national group from immigrating to the United States.