The Sino-French War, Tonkin War, or Tonquin war, was a conflict between China and France regarding the control of Tonkin, a region in northern Vietnam. The Qing Dynasty performed well on land and won limited strategic victories; however, the Qing forces in Taiwan and other surrounding islands were defeated by the French. Ultimately, the war ended with the Treaty of Tientsin, which arguably satisfied most of the goals of the French.
1894 · First Sino-Japanese War
The First Sino-Japanese War was a conflict regarding Korean influence between Japan and China. The fighting began on July 25, 1894, and ended on April 17, 1895. This period was notable for Japan beginning to show regional dominance over China, primarily due to the fact that the Qing Dynasty's military had not been sufficiently modernized. In February of 1895, after suffering repeat losses for over six months, the Qing Dynasty sued for peace, initiating the close of the war.
1901 · Late Qing Reform
The Late Qing Reform, also referred to as the era of "New Policies," involved a series of changes to education, economy, military, politics, and cultural norms of the time. The goal of these reforms was to help the Qing Dynasty maintain power after having been subject to several invasions. The Administration Office was established in April of 1901 to help manage the execution of these reforms. The effectiveness of these reforms was debated, with many believing that the laws served more as a demonstration.
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