Citizens of Poland gathered for a demonstration in Warsaw on December 2, 1789. The protest, referred to as the Black Procession, was focused primarily on much-needed urban reform. Over 294 representatives marched peacefully in the streets, dressed in black. The demands included the right to representation in parliament, the right to buy land estates, and reforms to the current urban law. The cause succeeded and the Free Royal Cities Act was eventually passed on April 18, 1791, as an amendment to the Constitution of May 3.
1792 · Polish-Russian War of 1792
From May 18 until July 27 of 1792, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth fought against both the Targowica Confederation and the Russian Empire. The Polish forces found themselves retreating from the dominant Russian forces during the conflicts in Lithuania and Ukraine, but ended up showing a surprising amount of resistance in the south. Despite nearly three months of battles, neither side managed to win a decisive victory. The Polish King Stanisław August Poniatowski ultimately sought a diplomatic solution, which resulted in them succumbing to Russia's demands and joining the Targowica Confederation.
During the Second Partition, Russia and Prussia take over half of what was left of Poland.
Polish: from a pet form of the personal names Benedykt ( see Benedict ) or Beniamin ( see Benjamin ).