The First Opium War, or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military conflicts between China and the United Kingdom. The conflict was caused by disputes over trading, diplomatic relationships, and other conflicts. The war ended with the Treaty of Nanking, referred to by the Chinese as the "unequal treaties"; China was forced to cede the Hong Kong Island to the British Empire, and Britain was granted extraterritoriality, indemnity, and five new treaty ports for foreign merchants.
1841 · Sino-Sikh War
A conflict between the Sikh Empire and Qing China from May of 1841 to August of 1842, referred to as the Invasion of Tibet, the Dogra War, or the Sino-Sikh War. The fighting began when the Sikh Empire, led by General Zorawar Singh Kahluria, invaded the western side of Tibet. The Qing launched a counterattack, but due to defeats, the two sides ended up in a military stalemate. The war ended with the Treaty of Chushul, designed to return to the pre-war status quo.
Taiping rebellion. Hung Hsiu-ch'uan fails his civil service examination, he goes into a trance and discovers that he is the Son of God. He declares the T'ai-p'ing T'ien-kuo, the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace, and begins the Taiping rebellion, the bloodiest civil war in world history.
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