The First Opium War, or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military conflicts between China and the United Kingdom. The conflict was caused by disputes over trading, diplomatic relationships, and other conflicts. The war ended with the Treaty of Nanking, referred to by the Chinese as the "unequal treaties"; China was forced to cede the Hong Kong Island to the British Empire, and Britain was granted extraterritoriality, indemnity, and five new treaty ports for foreign merchants.
1841 · Sino-Sikh War
A conflict between the Sikh Empire and Qing China from May of 1841 to August of 1842, referred to as the Invasion of Tibet, the Dogra War, or the Sino-Sikh War. The fighting began when the Sikh Empire, led by General Zorawar Singh Kahluria, invaded the western side of Tibet. The Qing launched a counterattack, but due to defeats, the two sides ended up in a military stalemate. The war ended with the Treaty of Chushul, designed to return to the pre-war status quo.
1870 · The Tianjin Massacre
The Tientsin Massacre of 1870 took place in Tianjin, along China's northern coast. Rumors had spread throughout 1870 that Christian baptism caused death; this was because orphanages were experiencing high outbreaks of disease, and the baptisms of children most likely to die were prioritized first. Tensions rose further when three kidnappers were arrested outside Tianjin and one of them claimed to be selling children to the Catholic orphanage. As Chinese officials attempted to meet with French representatives to discuss various issues, anti-Catholic riots began to gather outside the cathedral. Events afterwards escalated and became more confusing, resulting in at least 60 deaths, including two French Consular officials, ten nuns, two Lazarist priests, three Russian traders, and roughly 40 Chinese Christians. In 1871, the Chinese would formally apologize to the French Head of State, but this event led to the Chinese government refusing to accept or endorse foreign missionaries.
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