Revolution in Switzerland. Farmers in occupied territories become free citizens. Centralistic parliamentary republic according to French model. Occupation by French troops and some battles of Napoleon vs. Austria and Russia in Switzerland.
Switzerland is one of the first industrialized countries in Europe.
New Federal Constitution combining elements of the U.S. constitution (Federal State with central and cantonal (state) governments and parliaments) and of French revolutionary tradition. The Principles of this constitution are still valid today.
1 German: status name from Middle High German grāve, grābe, which was used as a title denoting various more or less aristocratic dignitaries and officials. In later times it became established as a title of nobility equivalent to the Romance count. The vocabulary word also denoted a variety of different minor local functionaries in different parts of Germany. In the Grand Duchy of Hesse, for example, it was used for the holder of the comparatively humble office of village headman. Compare Mayer , Schultz , and Vogt . The surname could have originated from any of these senses or be an occupational name for a servant or retainer of a count, or a nickname for someone who gave himself airs and graces.2 Variant spelling of Dutch Graef .3 Jewish (Ashkenazic): ornamental name selected, like Herzog and other words denoting titles, because of their aristocratic connotations.