The Disruption of 1843 was a division within the Church of Scotland, which 474 evangelical ministers of the Church broke away from the Church to form the Free Church of Scotland. They didn’t reject the principles of the Church of Scotland but were trying to establish a purer version of the Church without the King or Parliament being its head. It had huge effects not only within the Church of Scotland, but also with Scottish civic life.
1874 · Patronage abolished in the Church of Scotland.
The Church Patronage Act 1874 was passed by Parliament and amended and altered the laws relating to the Appointment of Ministers to Parishes in Scotland. Paragraphs spelled out definitions to prevent the Act being subverted by processes used by Patrons and clarified that the Church of Scotland would decide on the qualifications required for Ministers.
English and Scottish: status name or occupational name from Middle English, Old French maresc(h)al ‘marshal’. The term is of Germanic origin (compare Old High German marah ‘horse’, ‘mare’ + scalc ‘servant’). Originally it denoted a man who looked after horses, but by the heyday of medieval surname formation it denoted on the one hand one of the most important servants in a great household (in the royal household a high official of state, one with military responsibilities), and on the other a humble shoeing smith or farrier. It was also an occupational name for a medieval court officer responsible for the custody of prisoners. An even wider range of meanings is found in some other languages: compare for example Polish Marszałek ( see Marszalek ). The surname is also borne by Jews, presumably as an Americanized form of one or more likesounding Jewish surnames.