1874 · Patronage abolished in the Church of Scotland.
The Church Patronage Act 1874 was passed by Parliament and amended and altered the laws relating to the Appointment of Ministers to Parishes in Scotland. Paragraphs spelled out definitions to prevent the Act being subverted by processes used by Patrons and clarified that the Church of Scotland would decide on the qualifications required for Ministers.
Art Nouveau Period (Art and Antiques).
1902 · The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition
The Scottish National Antarctic Expedition was organized and led by William Speirs Bruce. Him along with Robert Falcon Scott’s Discovery Expedition completed an exploration of Antarctica. They established the first manned meteorological station, the Orcadas, in 1903 and discovered new land east of the Weddell Sea. The expedition was described as the most cost-effective and carefully planned scientific expedition of the Heroic Age. The Orcadas weather station has been in continuous operation ever since.
English: occupational name for a worker in metal, from Middle English smith (Old English smið, probably a derivative of smītan ‘to strike, hammer’). Metalworking was one of the earliest occupations for which specialist skills were required, and its importance ensured that this term and its equivalents were perhaps the most widespread of all occupational surnames in Europe. Medieval smiths were important not only in making horseshoes, plowshares, and other domestic articles, but above all for their skill in forging swords, other weapons, and armor. This is the most frequent of all American surnames; it has also absorbed, by assimilation and translation, cognates and equivalents from many other languages (for forms, see Hanks and Hodges 1988 ).