The Dungan Revolt was a complicated religious conflict that involved a variety of Chinese, British, and Russian belligerents. The battles were described as chaotic, and the various rebels involved lacked planning and unified tactics. One consequence of the war was the mass emigration of Dungan people to Russia.
1870 · The Tianjin Massacre
The Tientsin Massacre of 1870 took place in Tianjin, along China's northern coast. Rumors had spread throughout 1870 that Christian baptism caused death; this was because orphanages were experiencing high outbreaks of disease, and the baptisms of children most likely to die were prioritized first. Tensions rose further when three kidnappers were arrested outside Tianjin and one of them claimed to be selling children to the Catholic orphanage. As Chinese officials attempted to meet with French representatives to discuss various issues, anti-Catholic riots began to gather outside the cathedral. Events afterwards escalated and became more confusing, resulting in at least 60 deaths, including two French Consular officials, ten nuns, two Lazarist priests, three Russian traders, and roughly 40 Chinese Christians. In 1871, the Chinese would formally apologize to the French Head of State, but this event led to the Chinese government refusing to accept or endorse foreign missionaries.
1884 · Sino-French War
The Sino-French War, Tonkin War, or Tonquin war, was a conflict between China and France regarding the control of Tonkin, a region in northern Vietnam. The Qing Dynasty performed well on land and won limited strategic victories; however, the Qing forces in Taiwan and other surrounding islands were defeated by the French. Ultimately, the war ended with the Treaty of Tientsin, which arguably satisfied most of the goals of the French.
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